This volume is based on the Fourth International Symposium on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, held in Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in August 1998. At the Symposium 134 papers from South America, North America, Europe and Asia were presented. The Conference lasted ®ve full days and the Proceedings volume consisted of 3-page extended abstracts. The possibility of submitting papers for this special issue was open to all authors, independent of the form of presentation (poster or oral). Experienced scientists have refereed the sub-mitted papers. All the referees worked very rapidly and judiciously and I would like to express my sincere thanks to them.
The International Symposia on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy started as a result of the great development of the technique in the 1980s, the first having been organized by Claude Gabrielli in Bombannes, France in 1989.
The 9th International Symposium on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy EIS2013 was held in Okinawa, Japan from June 16-21, 2013. The EIS2013 brought together more than 200 participants from 30 countries.
The 10th International Symposium on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS2016), was held in A Toxa, Galicia, Spain,from the 19 to 24 June 2016. The EIS2016 brought together more than 150 participants from 32 countries.
The Symposium on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS 2019) is an international meeting started since 1989 which takes place every three years. This conference has evolved into one of the leading events in electrochemical impedance spectroscopy providing a unique opportunity to gather experts of different fields around this powerful technique.